How do states tread the fine line between soldiers’ legitimate need to defend themselves and the risk to civilians in places where the threats are not as clear as a smoking gun? This empirical study compares how the US, UK, France, and Germany applied soldier self-defense in Afghanistan, and the implications for civilian and military protection and for international law.
At the World Humanitarian Summit last year, major government donors and aid organizations agreed on the Grand Bargain, a set of commitments designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. One year on, Grand Bargain signatories report notable progress, but it is uneven, and there is impatience in the field about realizing the Grand Bargain’s benefits.
Emmanuel Macron’s presidential victory brings an opportunity for restarting German-French cooperation to strengthen European security and diplomacy. But only if Germany compromises – by supporting more joint public investment and greater risk-sharing among eurozone countries – will Europe be able to seize the fleeting Macron moment.
by Mario Schulz
War on the Rocks
by Mirko Hohmann, Alexander Pirang
Council on Foreign Relations